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2024, 44(1): -.
[Abstract](281) [PDF 6749KB](13)
2024, 44(1): 1-4.
[Abstract](257) [FullText HTML] (132) [PDF 522KB](19)
Research Article
Subcellular Localization and Multimerization Analyses of HbPIP2;7, a PIP Aquaporin from Hevea brasiliensis
Zou Zhi, Zheng Yujiao, Qiao Xueying, Yang Jianghua
2024, 44(1): 1-6. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202212041
[Abstract](319) [FullText HTML] (134) [PDF 2190KB](8)
Natural rubber is specifically synthesized in the laticifer of Hevea brasiliensis. Due to the absence of plasmodesmata between mature laticifer cells and surrounding parenchyma cells, water influx toward laticifers is mainly controlled by plasma membrane intrinsic proteins(PIPs) within the aquaporin(AQP) family. To investigate the molecular mechanism of water balance in laticifers, the coding sequence(CDS) of an abundant PIP gene denoted HbPIP2;7 was isolated using RT-PCR followed by subcellular localization and multimerization analyses of its coding protein. Sequence analysis revealed that the CDS length of HbPIP2;7 is 837 bp, putatively encoding 278 amino acids with the theoretical molecular weight of 29.56 kDa, the isoelectric point of 9.11, the instability index of 29.89, and the grand average of hydropathicity of 0.526. The protein was shown to contain 1 conserved MIP domain with 6 transmembrane helixes and may function in tetramers. Bioinformatics prediction and transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves revealed that HbPIP2;7 is localized in the plasma membrane. Both bimolecular fluorescence complementation and yeast two-hybrid analyses suggested that this protein could not form a homomultimer. Thereby, HbPIP2;7 is more likely to be involved in laticifer water balance in the form of hereotetramers.
Analysis of Paulownia NLR Gene Family and their Responses to Phytoplasmas
Lang Yaqin, Zhai Xiaoqiao, Cao Xibing, Fan Guoqiang
2024, 44(1): 7-20. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202208042
[Abstract](382) [FullText HTML] (237) [PDF 5608KB](6)
In order to study the role of PfNLR gene family in Paulownia fortunei resistance to Paulownia witches' broom(PaWB), bioinformatics methods were used to comprehensively analyze the composition, physicochemical properties, chromosomal localization, evolution, structure, cis-acting elements and tissue expression specificity of P. fortunei NLR (PfNLR) family members. Combined with the miRNA and transcriptome data before and after phytoplasma infecting Paulownia, the genes associated with resistance to PaWB were screened. The results showed that 199 PfNLRs in P. fortunei belonged to 6 subfamilies; 91.9% of PfNLRs were located on 18 chromosomes of P. fortunei, of which 62.8% were clustered, among them, there were 10 chromosome segment repeats and 1 chromosome tandem repeats in 23 PfNLRs; PfNLR contains hormonal and stress elements; integrated transcriptome and miRNA analysis found that there were 156 pairs of targeted relationships between PfNLRs and miRNAs; most of PfNLRs were expressed in buds and roots; of which, 16 PfNLRs were significantly different before and after phytoplasma infection. Further analysis revealed that PfNLR181 mediated by pf-miRNA482 played a role in resistance of PaWB. These results could provide a theoretical basis for analyzing the function of PfNLR protein.
Identification and Expression Analysis of the Chitinases Gene Family in Pestalotiopsis kenyana
Sui Wenjing, Yang Juncong, Fan Shichang, Li Mingjiao, Zhang Yanqing, Li Jing
2024, 44(1): 21-30. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202210038
[Abstract](574) [FullText HTML] (110) [PDF 2386KB](11)
Bioinformatics methods were used to detect and analyze chitinase genes from the genome of Pestalotiopsis kenyana PG52. The chitinase genes related to mycoparasitism were screened by detecting the expression of genes induced by aecidiospores at different time periods. Results showed the PG52 harbors 20 GH18 family chitinase genes and a GH19 family gene with molecular weights of 38.0–177.2 kDa and theoretical pI of 3.97–9.25, 7 genes had signal peptides and 13 genes were located in extracellular. PGChns gene contained the conserved domains of the GH18 family or the GH19 family. Additionally clustering analysis with Trichoderma spp. showed that PGChns of GH18 family can be classified to 7 sgA, 4 sgB, 8 sgC, and 1 sgD chitinase genes. After rust spore induction, 18 genes were differentially expressed, 7 genes were most highly expressed at 24h induction, 6 continuously down-regulated genes after induction, 4 genes with most high expression after 72h induction. Subsequently, 6 genes with high expression or great fold change were selected for RT-qPCR, and the results suggested the highest expression level of differently expressed genes was observed after 72h induction. The up-regulated expression of PGChns after induction is likely to play a role in destroying the rust spore wall during the reparasitization of PG52 strain, while the mechanism of its reparasitization action is not yet clear.
Study on Physiological Response and Tolerance of Populus yunnanensis Seedlings to Cadmium and Zinc Stress
Wang Yanxia, Zheng Wuyang, Hou Lei, Liu Chutian, He Chengzhong, Chen Zhuxue, Wei Wenya
2024, 44(1): 31-39. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202211070
[Abstract](176) [FullText HTML] (102) [PDF 1333KB](3)
To investigate the growth and physiological responses of Populus yunnanensis, and to clarify its tolerance characteristics under cadmium(Cd), zinc(Zn) and their combined(Cd-Zn) stress, the experiment was carried out by soil culture pot. The results showed as follows: Cd and Zn stress did not significantly change plant height, ground diameter, and total biomass, but Zn stress significantly increased full root length, root surface area and root volume, while Cd-Zn stress significantly decreased full root length. Zn stress improved the nursery stock quality of P. yunnanensis, Cd stress made the growth worse, and Cd-Zn stress was the worst growth status. Photosynthetic pigment content and net photosynthetic rate were not changed by single stress of Cd and Zn. Under Cd-Zn stress, chlorophyll content decreased significantly, while net photosynthetic rate and light response characteristic parameters did not change significantly. Dark respiration rate(Rd) and light compensation point(LCP) were significantly increased under Cd stress, and light saturation point(LSP) was significantly increased under Zn stress. Cd and Cd-Zn stress could stimulate the oxidative stress defense system of P. yunnanensis, the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) were significantly increased, while the contents of malondialdehyde(MDA) and total phenol(TPh) were not significantly changed, and SOD, CAT, MDA and TPh were not significantly changed under Zn stress. The seedlings of P. yunnanensis showed tolerance to single and combined stress of Cd and Zn, and could be used as an important candidate tree for ecological remediation of Cd and Zn polluted soil. The total tolerance values(D) of all treatments followed the sequence of Zn>CK>Cd> Cd-Zn.
Nitrogen and Phosphorus Stoichiometry and Resorption Characteristics of Dominant Trees in the Primary Succession Sequence of Hailuogou Glacier Retreat Area, Tibetan Plateau, China
Yang Danli, Luo Ji, Qin Shihao, Tang Suxian
2024, 44(1): 40-47. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202301002
[Abstract](1047) [FullText HTML] (93) [PDF 1160KB](37)
Based on the primary succession of vegetation in the Hailuogou glacier retreat area, the characteristics of nitrogen(N) and phosphorus(P) stoichiometry and resorption efficiency of dominant trees in different succession stages were studied. The results showed that the N and P concentrations of fresh leaves and litters decreased with succession, and the N∶P of fresh leaves were less than 14 in the whole succession sequence, indicating that the growth of dominant trees in this succession sequence was mainly limited by N; the N and P resorption efficiency of dominant trees was the highest in the middle succession stage, indicating that higher plant growth rate would increase the efficiency of nutrient uptake and utilization; the resorption efficiency of N and P were positively correlated with their growth rate, and negatively correlated with soil N and P storage, indicating that the tree growth rate(demand) and soil nutrient status(supply) jointly regulated the nutrient uptake pattern of vegetation, the N resorption efficiency of dominant trees was positively correlated with the N∶P, indicating that the N resorption process of vegetation was important to maintain the balance of the N∶P. These results are helpful to deeply understand the nutrient utilization mechanism of vegetation in the process of primary succession, and provide theoretical basis for vegetation restoration.
Study on Variation Characteristics of Soil Effective Boron and Cation Exchange Capacity in Dachunhe Watershed
Guo Suona, Tuo Yunfei, Zhang Lijuan, Wang Qian, Shen Fangyuan, Wang Fei, Zheng Yang, Du Wenjuan, Xiang Ping
2024, 44(1): 48-55. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202301026
[Abstract](175) [FullText HTML] (84) [PDF 1145KB](4)
In order to improve soil fertility conservation capacity and build a reasonable tilth structure, the research object of this study is forest land, garden land, grass land, arable land and bare land in the Dachun River watershed of Kunming City, Yunnan Province. Fixed depth method(FD) and equivalent mass method(ESM) were used to calculate soil effective boron reserves, and Franzluebbers calculated the stratification rate of soil effective boron(EB) and cation exchange capacity(CEC), analyze the variation characteristics and influencing factors of soil effective boron and cation exchange capacity with depth. The results show that soil effective boron varied significantly with soil depth(P < 0.05), forest land and garden land decreased with the increase of depth; grass land, arable land and bare land increase with depth; the stratification rate SR2 of soil effective boron and cation exchange capacity in forest land is higher than SR1; the content of soil cation exchange capacity significantly increases or decreases with the increase of soil depth; cations adhere to the soil and lose, the content of soil cation exchange capacity decreased with the increase of soil depth; organic matter(OM), total nitrogen(TN), water content(MC) and bulk density(BD) were significantly correlated with soil EB and CEC(P < 0.05). OM, TN, and MC of different land use types were positively correlated with soil EB and CEC, while BD was negatively correlated with soil EB and CEC. The fertilizer retention capacity of forest land and garden land is higher than that of grass land, arable land, and bare land, with the best fertilizer retention capacity of 0–20 cm; grass land, arable land, and bare land with a thickness of 40–60 cm have the best fertilizer retention capacity. Vegetation coverage and soil erosion are the main physical factors affecting soil EB and CEC, while OM, TN, MC and BD are the main chemical factors affecting soil EB and CEC. It is necessary to construct a reasonable cultivation layer to improve the ability of water and fertilizer conservation.
Response of Understory Vegetation, Litter and Soil Characteristics to Stand Density in Picea Secondary Forests
Peng Wei, Zhang Kai, Yang Xiuqing
2024, 44(1): 56-66. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202302021
[Abstract](215) [FullText HTML] (117) [PDF 1189KB](13)
Taking the 80-year-old Picea secondary forest in Pangquangou Nature Reserve of Shanxi Province as the research object, the understory vegetation diversity, litter and soil water conservation characteristics of the Picea secondary forest with different stand densities were analyzed by using the methods of variance analysis and multiple comparison through sample survey, sample collection and laboratory immersion treatment. The results showed that the smaller the stand density, the richer the species of shrub layer in the study area. The relationship between species diversity of herb layer and stand density was not obvious. The Euphorbia fortunei and Boehmeria nivea were the dominant species in the shrub layer, while Carex was the dominant species in the herbaceous layer. In general, the undergrowth vegetation species in the study area were relatively scarce. The litter thickness decreased with the increase of stand density, and there was no significant difference among 3 stands. At medium density, the biomass, maximum water holding capacity and effective storage capacity of litter were the largest, which were 36.56 t/hm2, 81.50 t/hm2 and 31.58 t/hm2 respectively. The rule of soil bulk density was low density > high density > medium density, that is, the average soil bulk density of medium density stands is the smallest, 0.89 g/cm3. The total porosity, capillary porosity and non capillary porosity were low density < medium density < high density. When the total water holding capacity and total effective water holding capacity of soil layer of medium density forest were the largest, 3945.61 t/hm2 and 364.00 t/hm2 respectively. In conclusion, considering that the study area is located in the Loess Plateau, and the water conservation function of the forest in this area is more important, it is suggested that the reasonable stand density of 80-year-old Picea secondary forest in Pangquangou Nature Reserve of Shanxi Province should be controlled at about 600–700 plants/hm2.
Spatial and Temporal Evolution and Drivers of Habitat Quality in the Bohai Rim Based on Value Assessment
Lu Yalan, Xu Wenbin, Huang Zhimei, Meng Weiqing, Yuan Haofan, Feng Jianfeng, Wang Yidong
2024, 44(1): 67-78. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202211066
[Abstract](180) [FullText HTML] (104) [PDF 2997KB](0)
This paper uses the land use products around the Bohai Sea from 2000 to 2020, coupling ecosystem service value model, ecosystem vitality index and InVEST habitat quality model to assess the spatial and temporal evolution pattern of habitat quality in the coastal zone of the Bohai Rim with strong anthropogenic activities, and uses the geographic detector model to detect the driving factors and analyze the interaction of habitat temporal and spatial changes. The results show that the overall habitat quality grade in the Bohai Rim region is medium and continues to increase from 2000 to 2020, with higher habitat quality in Dalian, Yingkou, Huludao and Qinhuangdao City. In 2000, 2010, and 2020, the proportion of habitat quality in the Bohai Sea region in the medium grade area was 53%, 57.4% and 58.3%, showing a continuous upward trend, and the habitat quality grade was transformed from low and lower grade to medium grade in a larger proportion. Habitat quality changes in the Bohai Rim from 2000 to 2020 are mainly influenced by factors such as temperature, elevation, precipitation, road network density and vegetation cover, among which precipitation, temperature and elevation have a stronger degree of influence. And both factor interactions showed 2 composite enhancement results, bifactor enhancement and nonlinear enhancement. The results of the study can provide reference for habitat restoration and land use planning in coastal zone areas.
Construction and Optimization of Ecological Corridor Based on MCR and HY Analysis in Putian
Jin Bowen, Xie Zhen, Ke Shan, Geng Jianwei, Pan Hui
2024, 44(1): 79-87. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202210015
[Abstract](398) [FullText HTML] (134) [PDF 2960KB](1)
In this study, taking the main urban area of Putian City as an example, the morphological spatial pattern approach(MSPA) combined with landscape connectivity analysis is used to screen important ecological source sites, and the minimum cumulative resistance model(MCR) and gravity model approach are applied to extract potential ecological corridors in the study area, while the hydrological analysis model(HY) is combined to identify radiation corridors and ecological function nodes in the study area, and finally construct and optimize ecological corridors in Putian City. The results show that based on MSPA and landscape connectivity index, a total of 14 core source sites were identified; using MCR and gravity model, a total of 29 corridors were identified, including 7 primary corridors, 10 secondary corridors and 12 tertiary corridors; combined with the hydrological analysis method, a total of 205 radiating corridors and 53 ecological function nodes were identified, including 5 primary nodes, 17 secondary nodes and 31 tertiary nodes. key areas for various types of ecological restoration were identified. Ecological node construction strategies were extracted.. The results of this study provide a scientific basis for the study of ecological corridor construction and ecological node protection temporality in Putian City.
Natural Regeneration and Influencing Factors of Castanopsis orthacantha Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in Central Yunnan
Luo Hang, Peng Zexi, Li Xiaoying, Xu Yanhong, Zhu Hongqin, Chen Yuqiang, Chen Xiaoqin, Qi Juncheng
2024, 44(1): 88-96. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202209071
[Abstract](217) [FullText HTML] (163) [PDF 1032KB](2)
Using a Castanopsis orthacantha forest located in central Yunnan, the entropy method was used to comprehensively evaluate the forest regeneration effect, and Pearson correlation analysis and path analysis model were established to study the influencing factors of understory regeneration. The results showed that among the 26 evergreen broad-leaved forest plots, 10 plots had a regeneration index of more than 0.6, accounting for 38.5 %. The effect of natural regeneration in the forest was general, however the regenerated tree species were relatively rich, a total of 18 species, belonging to 9 families, and 15 genera. The forest was in a slow, natural restoration stage of positive succession. Soil porosity(r = 0.848, P < 0.01) and water content(r = 0.855, P < 0.01) were significant factors affecting seedling(sapling) regeneration. Tree density and litter accumulation had dual effects on the understory regeneration of the C. orthacantha forest. The direct and indirect effects of stand number density on regeneration index were 0.002 and −0.11, respectively. The direct and indirect effects of litter accumulation on regeneration index were −0.238 and 0.219 respectively. The influence of each factor on the regeneration index was: soil porosity(0.856) > soil water content(0.461) > shrub coverage(0.361) > tree density(−0.108) > litter accumulation(−0.018). In the follow-up management, the natural regeneration of C. orthacantha evergreen broad-leaved forest can be promoted by artificial thinning, proper cleaning of litter, and improvement of soil conditions. This realizes the stability and sustainable management of C. orthacantha evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem.
Geographic Alternative Distribution Pattern and Its Climate Dominant Factors of Pinus Forests in Southern China
Li Linxia, He Lanjun, Xi Lei, Feng Zihang, Ou Guanglong
2024, 44(1): 97-105. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202211006
[Abstract](118) [FullText HTML] (76) [PDF 1455KB](2)
The 5 dominant species of Pinus yunnanensis, P. densata, P. armandii, P. kesiya and P. massoniana were collected to reveal the alternative distribution patterns of Pinus forests and climatic constraints in southern China. MaxEnt model was used to predicted geographic distribution of Pinus forests after collecting the species and bio-climatic factors data. The differences of ecological niches among 5 species were quantified by discriminant analysis, variance analysis, kernel density analysis and principal component analysis to explain the geographic alternative distribution patterns of vegetation and dominant climatic factors. The results showed that prediction accuracy of habitat zone was higher as AUC values of the 5 Pinus forests were all greater than 0.9, indicating that the prediction accuracy of the suitable area was high; the typical geographic substitution distribution existed in 5 Pinus forests; the mean diurnal range, isothermality, and temperature seasonality were the dominant temperature factors causing the niche differentiation of the 5 species. And the precipitation in the driest month and the precipitation of coldest quarter were the dominant precipitation factors of the difference of ecological niche in 5 species. The differences of ecological amplitude variation among 5 Pinus forests in different climatic factors indicate the variables of characterizing seasonal differences, such as temperature change and seasonal precipitation were the main reason of geographic substitution in the distribution of the 5 Pinus forests in southern China.
Spatial Characteristics and Driving Forces of Biomass of Pinus massoniana Forest in a Typical Red Soil Region of Southern China
Qiu Liping, Zhang Fan, Lin Jiayuan, Xu Weitao, Lai Riwen
2024, 44(1): 106-115. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202210022
[Abstract](212) [FullText HTML] (75) [PDF 1940KB](4)
Based on the forest resource inventory of Changting County, the aboveground biomass of Pinus massoniana was estimated, and its spatial characteristics were analyzed by global Moran's I index and the hot spot analysis(Getis–Ord \begin{document}$ {G}_{i}^{*} $\end{document}). The geographical detectors were used to explore its influencing factors, and the structural equation model was constructed to clarify its driving mechanism. The results showed that the aboveground biomass of P. massoniana in the study area was 53.563 t/hm2, with obvious spatial distribution differences. The spatial characteristics were shown as high-value clustering in the west and north of the study area and low-value clustering in the center and south. The results of geographic detectors showed that canopy density, elevation, stand age, mean annual temperature, precipitation, soil organic matter and soil total nitrogen content were significant influencing factors for biomass spatial differentiation of P. massoniana in the study area, and the explanatory power was enhanced by two-factor interaction. The path analysis of structural equation model showed that the main factors driving the path were canopy density, stand age, elevation and average annual precipitation. Canopy density exerted direct effect on biomass, while elevation indirectly affected stand biomass by influencing the precipitation and temperature. Stand age and mean annual precipitation had both direct and indirect effects on biomass, stand age had an indirect effect by affecting canopy density, and mean annual precipitation as well by affecting soil total nitrogen. In summary, the aboveground biomass of P. massoniana in Changting County shows significant spatial clustering distribution characteristics. The central and southern regions of the study area are the key areas for further improvement of P. massoniana stand quality and ecological management. In the future, the management of P. massoniana in Changting County can be focused on enhancing the stand quality by optimizing the stand structure, increasing the canopy density and improving soil nutrients.
Remote Sensing Estimation of Standing Tree Biomass in Pinus massoniana Forest in Typical Red Soil Erosion Area in Southern China
Tian Shangfeng, Liu Jian, Yu Kunyong, Wang Ruifan, Zhao Wenkai
2024, 44(1): 116-124. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202207051
[Abstract](125) [FullText HTML] (69) [PDF 2552KB](2)
Taking the typical red soil erosion area in the southern Hetian Town, Changting County as an example, and combining the advantages of point cloud data generated by UAV and LiDAR, while later inverting the single wood tree height(H) and canopy radius(Rc) by local maximum and watershed algorithms, fitting the anisotropic growth equation with the combination of H and Rc as variables, and obtaining the the model of standing wood biomass of Pinus massoniana based on new canopy parameters. The evaluation accuracy results showed that the coefficient of determination(R2) and root mean square error(RMSE) of extracted tree height(H) were 0.93 and 0.49 m, respectively; the R2 and RMSE of calculated canopy radius(Rc) were 0.88 and 0.64 m, respectively; the R2 and RMSE of estimated standing wood biomass were 0.89 and 3.37 kg, respectively. In summary, this paper quantifies by UAV remote sensing image and constructed anisotropic growth equations, the anisotropic growth equation with the combination(H + Rc) as the base has a high accuracy in estimating the standing wood biomass of P. massoniana forest, and can effectively estimate the standing wood biomass of P. massoniana forest. This study can provide methodological reference for the accurate estimation of standing wood biomass in P. massoniana forest in southern typical red soil erosion areas.
Study on Quantitative Inversion of Spatial Pattern of Forest Leaf Eating Pest Disaster
Jiang Xuefei, Bao Guangdao, Zhai Chang, Liu Ting, Ren Zhibin, Ding Mingming, Zhang Wei, Du Yunxia
2024, 44(1): 125-134. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202210021
[Abstract](146) [FullText HTML] (81) [PDF 6756KB](0)
Using Sentinel–2A multi-spectral image as the data source, the spatial pattern of pest damage at the southern foot of Changbai Mountain was quantitatively obtained by coupling the insect mouth density using spatial distribution of injured tree species extracted using a convolutional neural network model and leaf foliation rate by the difference of the leaf area index reversed by the PROSAIL model at multiple time points. Results show that: the overall accuracy of 7 LAI inversion in 2018–2020 was above 88%; the optimal reference phase of red pine was in June 2019, R2 is 0.82 and other species in June 2018; linear function, R2 is 0.755; larch pest area of 6174 hm2, and spruce damage area ratio of 65.19%. The reference phase of the leaf loss rate is June of the year before the disaster; the relationship between the pest density and the leaf loss rate is linear; the spatial pattern of different tree species is different, and the proportion of evergreen trees is generally higher than that of deciduous tree species.
Host Selectivity and Adaptability of Rhoptroceros cyatheae to Alsophila spinulosa and Gymnosphaera metteniana var. subglabra
Xiao Jiaxing, Yang Weicheng, Zhang Bingchen, He Qinqin, Kong Lingxiong, Bai Xiaojie, Jiang Yu
2024, 44(1): 135-141. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202212028
[Abstract](146) [FullText HTML] (85) [PDF 2057KB](2)
The host selectivity of Rhoptroceros cyatheae to different plants was determined using cage spawning and leaf plate method. The growth and development of larvae feeding on different tender leaves were observed. The relation between R. cyatheae and different host plants was analyzed. The results showed that R. cyatheae adults showed significant oviposition selectivity to Gymnosphaera metteniana var. subglabra. The number of eggs laid on Alsophila spinulosa and G. metteniana var. subglabra were (38.25 ± 8.27) and (67.38 ± 7.11), respectively. The 2nd to 5th instar larvae also showed a significant preference for feeding on G. metteniana var. subglabra. There is no significant difference in the development stage, adult longevity and emergence rate of larvae feeding on 2 plants. The mature larval stage and pupal stage of R. cyatheae which fed on A. spinulosa were significantly prolonged than that fed on G. metteniana var. subglabra, while the larval survival rate and pupation rate were significantly reduced. It can be seen that R. cyatheae has different selectivity among host plants. The oviposition selectivity of adults is consistent with the feeding selectivity of larvae. Compared with R. cyatheae feeding on A. spinulosa, the R. cyatheae feeding on G. metteniana var. subglabra has a higher fitness.
Study on Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Diversity in Natural Forest of Quercus acutissima in Central Guizhou
Jiang Dandan, Xu Ming, Yang Yunli, Zhang Jian
2024, 44(1): 142-148. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202301001
[Abstract](117) [FullText HTML] (81) [PDF 2622KB](0)
The paper aims to reveal characteristics of ectomycorrhizal fungi diversity in Quercus acutissima forest in subtropical montane, the sample plot of Q. acutissima natural forest community in mountainous area of central Guizhou was selected, and the diversity of EMF was analyzed by both morphological and molecular techniques. The findings indicated that a total of 27 OTUs of EMF were identified, belonging to 2 phyla, 4 classes, 8 orders, 9 families and 10 genera, of which the Basidiomycota and Ascomycota accounted for 86.05% and 13.95%, respectively. Indicating that the richness of Basidiomycota was significantly higher than that of Ascomycota. Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae were the dominant EMF groups. Russula and Tomentella were the dominant genera. The richness of Xerocomus, Hebeloma, Thelephora, Laccaria and Tuber were the least.
Research on Technology and Densification of Phenolic Resin / Montmorillonite Impregnated Modified Cunninghamia lanceolata
He Lei, Wei Xinyi, Huang Hui, Deng Tao, Zhao Pan, Sun Fengwen
2024, 44(1): 149-156. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202209023
[Abstract](197) [FullText HTML] (82) [PDF 2143KB](0)
In this experiment, Chinese fir wood was treated by impregnation of phenolic resin and montmorillonite solution under positive and negative pressure imitating breathing environment. The effects of negative pressure, negative pressure time, positive pressure and positive pressure time on weight gain rate of Chinese fir wood were studied, and optimal progress was confirmed by orthogonal test. The density, weight gain rate, surface hardness, mechanical properties, dimensional stability and flame retardancy of the compacted modified Chinese fir wood were analyzed based on the impregnated Chinese fir wood with the optimal technology. The microstructure and functional groups of the modified Chinese fir wood were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The results indicates that the weight gain rate of wood is the best when negative pressure –0.095 MPa, negative pressure time 20 min, positive pressure 1.5 MPa and positive pressure time 1.5 h. Under this impregnation process, the density of Chinese fir after compression densification treatment increased from 0.328 g/cm3 to 0.784 g/cm3, and the static bending strength, elastic modulus and surface hardness increased by 34.7%, 38.4% and 85.6% respectively; the dimensional stability results showed that the water absorption and volume expansion of the modified fir are significantly reduced. The scanning electron microscope(SEM) showed that the modifier penetrates mainly through tracheids, ray cells and pits, and the pores inside the wood were well filled. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometer indicated that the free hydroxyl groups are reduced and the number of bonded hydroxyl groups and ether bonds are increased in the wood, where Si–O–C bonds are formed. The fire resistance test found that the modified wood has a good flame retardant effect.
Effects of Tobacco Stalk Powder and Coffee Shell Powder on Properties of Wood-plastic Composites
Di Yasen, Tang Zhengjie, Su Yanwei, Li Xiaoping, Yang Guoyin, Wu Zhangkang
2024, 44(1): 157-165. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202211077
[Abstract](133) [FullText HTML] (83) [PDF 2197KB](0)
In order to explore the feasibility of tobacco stalk powder and coffee shell powder instead of eucalyptus wood powder in the production of wood-plastic composites(WPC), the chemical compositions of tobacco stalk powder, coffee shell powder and eucalyptus wood powder were analyzed and compared by the method of Van Soest. The tobacco stalk powder, coffee shell powder and eucalyptus wood powder were used as reinforcement phases, and HDPE was used as matrix. WPC with different lignocellulosic materials and ratios were prepared by two-step extrusion molding method. By testing the physical and mechanical properties, DMA, OIT and OIT* of WPC, and observing the micromorphology and functional groups of WPC, the effects of different lignocellulosic materials and their ratios on the properties of WPC were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of polycellulose from high to low were eucalyptus wood powder, tobacco stalk powder and coffee shell powder, while the contents of lignin from low to high were eucalyptus wood powder, tobacco stem powder and coffee shell powder. The comprehensive performance of eucalyptus powder/HDPE composite(TS0) was better than that of tobacco stalk powder/HDPE composite(TS100) and coffee shell powder/HDPE composite(CS100). The elastic modulus, static flexural strength, concentrated load, and impact strength of WPC increased first and then decreased with the decrease of eucalyptus powder content, and the OIT and OIT* decreased. The comprehensive performance of 20% tobacco stalk powder and 80% eucalyptus powder/HDPE composite(TS20) was the best. Compared with the TS100, the concentrated load and impact strength of the composite were increased by 27.5% and 22.5%, respectively, and the OIT and OIT* were increased by 9.9 min and 10.7 ℃, respectively.
Study on Preparation and Properties of Zinc-loaded Composite Antibacterial Material from Macadamia Nut Shell
Zhang JianZhu, Yang Zhengfang, Pan YuanJiang, Zhang Bin, Nie Yanli
2024, 44(1): 166-175. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202211046
[Abstract](169) [FullText HTML] (167) [PDF 2598KB](1)
In this study, macadamia nut shell(MNS) was used as raw material, and the powder activated carbon(MNSAC) was prepared by zinc chloride activation method as the antibacterial material carrier, and the metal zinc ions were loaded on the surface and micropores of the activated carbon by impregnation method, and the activated carbon zinc-loaded composite antibacterial material(MNSAC−Zn) was obtained. The materials were characterized by iodine adsorption value, nitrogen desorption, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), inductively coupled plasma-emission spectroscopy(ICP−OES) and antibacterial test. The results show that the prepared activated carbon material has porous structure, the specific surface area is 644.118 m2/g, and the average pore size is 2.289 nm. The iodine adsorption value was 1018 mg/g. The best zinc source was zinc sulfate. When zinc sulfate was used as zinc source, the contact time of carbon and zinc was 7 h, the impregnation ratio of carbon and zinc was 1∶25, and the concentration of zinc solution was 1.0 mol/L, the prepared activated carbon loaded zinc composite antibacterial material had better bactericidal performance, the antibacterial rate against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was 99.9%. At the same time, the antibacterial fabric impregnated with activated carbon zinc-loaded composite antibacterial material and fabric also has good antibacterial effect, indicating a potential application trend. This study provides a reference for broadening the application range of waste biomass resources.
Composition and Activity Analysis of Alcohol Extract of Quezui Tea Based on UHPLC−Q−Orbitrap HRMS
Wang Wenbo, Yuan Tiantian, Lv Yuxiu, Liu Zhen, Xie Dong, Zhang Jingwen, Zhao Ping, Chen Baosen, Yang Xiaoqin
2024, 44(1): 176-184. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202209043
[Abstract](182) [FullText HTML] (133) [PDF 1355KB](6)
To explore its active ingredients, this paper analyzed its alcohol extract based on UHPLC−Q−Orbitrap HRMS, and further studied its antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitiory activity. The results showed that 1321 metabolites were identified from the alcohol extract, of which 1085 metabolites, including 11 superclasses were matched to the human metabolic database(HMDB). The high content of the active metabolites such as phenylpropanoids and polyketides include neoliquiritin, quercetin 3−arabinoside, acenocoumarol, quercetin 3−O−glucoside, epicatechin−(2β→7, 4β→8)−epicatechin−(4β→8)−epicatechin, organoheterocyclic compounds include caffeine, nucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues include vidarabine, as well as caffeyl compounds include quercetin 3−O−glucoside, 3−O−feruloylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and 2−O−caffeoylarbutin. In addition, the scavenging rates of DPPH·, ABTS+·, and ·OH of the Quezui tea alcohol extract can reach 93.56%, 99.04%, and 94.82%, respectively. And the total reduction capacity increased with the increase of the total polyphenols concentration of alcohol extract, and the effect was very close to the positive control ascorbic acid. The inhibition rates of monophenolase and diphenolase were 81.50% and 58.58%, respectively.
Research Bulletin
Diversity and Distribution Pattern of Butterflies in Ma'andi Area of Jinping County
Wang Ke, Yang Baoshun, Gao Jingjing, Zha Yunchuan, Yang Xiaojun
2024, 44(1): 185-193. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202301010
[Abstract](145) [FullText HTML] (85) [PDF 1324KB](6)
During August 2021 and August 2022, we set up 21 line transects in typical habitats to survey the butterflies in Ma'andi Township, Jinping County, Yunnan Province. The captured or detected butterflies were identified and classified, the species diversity of butterflies in different habitat types was compared, and the differences in species composition of butterflies in different sampling areas and habitat types were analyzed. The findings revealed that a total of 165 species of butterflies were recorded, belonging to 10 families and 97 genera, among which Nymphalidae had the largest number of genera and species(26 genera and 37 species), accounting for 26.8% of the total number of genera and 22.4% of the total number of species. Stichophthalma louisa had the highest abundance, accounting for 66.1% of the total number of butterfly individuals we collected. The richness, diversity, evenness, the Chao1 index, and the composition of butterflies varied in different habitats. The total species richness showed a pattern of mid-elevation peaks, the species richness increased first and then decreased with the increasing altitude, peaking between 1000 and 1700 meters. The species composition of butterflies in different habitats and altitudes was mainly a result of species substitution, rather than species nestedness.
Sequencing and Analysis of the Mitochondrial Genome of Orthotomicus erosus
Li Xingyan, Liang Wenkai, Ze Sangzi, Zhao Ning, Zhu Jiaying
2024, 44(1): 194-199. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202206033
[Abstract](186) [FullText HTML] (139) [PDF 1014KB](6)
Orthotomicus erosus(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is widely distributed in Eurasia and China. It is a pest that damages pine trees. But the studies on the molecular identification and population genetic structure of this pest are still lacking. In view of this, the genomic sequences of this pest were sequenced with high-throughput sequencing technology, which leads to assemble its complete mitochondrial genome using GetOrganelle software. The results confirm that its mitogenome is 17 451 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA genes. Nucleotide compositions of its whole mitogenome are 37.4% for A, 33.45% for T, 18.4% for C, and 10.75% for G. Phylogenetic tree analysis using the sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of O. erosus and other Curculionidae species showed that O. erosus is closely related to O. laricis. These 2 species are grouped on the same branch, which is in accordance with the traditional morphological classification. The results of this study lay a foundation for screening molecular markers of mitochondrion for molecular identification and genetic structure research in O. erosus.
Isolation and Identification of an Entomopathogenic Fungus Infecting the Matsucoccus matsumurae
Ren Xuemin, Xu Zhiwen, Yang Bin, Zhan Maokui, Lu Jifang, Sun Yaru
2024, 44(1): 200-207. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202305035
[Abstract](127) [FullText HTML] (72) [PDF 2415KB](5)
A pathogenic fungus named MM-2022 was isolated and purified from the naturally infected Matsucoccus matsumurae 2nd instar nymph. The strain was identified as Penicillium cairnsense through methods such as back infestation test, morphological observation, and molecular sequencing. A native pathogenic fungus, P. cairnsense, which naturally infected and killed M. matsumurae, has been isolated for the first time. Colony color, texture, and scanning electron microscopy results of P. cairnsense are different on PDA and SDAY culture medium. The colonies of the strain in PDA culture medium showed dark gray-green, powdery or granular texture, while the back of the colonies showed light yellowish-green. Scanning electron microscope of the strain showed plump conidiophore, 2 whorled penicillus, 7–9 bottle-shape phialides, and a large number of globose conidia. However, the colonies of the strain in SDAY culture medium showed bright yellow, fluffy texture, while the back of the colonies showed yellowish-brown or dark yellowish-brown. Scanning electron microscope of the strain showed dry conidiophore, relatively few phialides and conidia. The comparability between the rDNA sequence of strain MM-2022 and P. cairnsense in GenBank is 99%, and these 2 strains are gathered in one branch in the phylogenetic tree.
Effects of Nitrogen Application Rate on Nutrient Utilization Efficiency of Vicia faba
Wang Lihao, Li Chengbai, Wan Shanping, Liu Yingchao, Zhang Xiaozhuo, Huang Min, Dai Lili
2024, 44(1): 208-213. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202303010
[Abstract](138) [FullText HTML] (90) [PDF 952KB](2)
In this study, 3 nitrogen application levels were set in pot experiment, and no nitrogen fertilizer was used as control(CK). Dry matter accumulation, root length were detected and nutrient utilization efficiency were measured at different growth stages. The results showed that the dry weight of Vicia faba at harvest stage increased by 180%–480% compared with that at flowering stage and pod stage, respectively. Compared with T1, the root length of T2 and T3 were increased by 30.64% and 24.19% at flowering and were increased by 21.32%, 27.88% at pod stage, no significant difference between T2 and T3. At the harvest stage of V. faba, compared with CK, the nitrogen application rate of T1, T2 and T3 were increased by 33.01%–74.85%, respectively; however, there was no significant difference between T1 and T2. Compared with seedling stage, nutrient absorption efficiency of V. faba at harvest stage was reduced by 48.61%–63.54% at 3 nitrogen levels, respectively. In the same growth period, compared with the control group, N use efficiency of T3 increased by 4.76%–20.74%, respectively; however, there was no significant difference between CK and T1, T2. With the increase of nitrogen application rate, N use efficiency was increased, and there was no significant difference in harvest index of V. faba. In conclusion, nitrogen application rate affected the growth and nutrient utilization of V. faba, but did not affect the harvest index, and excessive nitrogen application did not promote the nutrient absorption and utilization of V. faba.
Effects of Nitrate and Ammonium Nitrogen on AM Colonization and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Uptake in Triticum aestivum and Vicia faba Intercropping System
Li Ye, Tang Li, Xiao Jingxiu, Luo Wei, Zheng Yi
2024, 44(1): 214-220. doi: 10.11929/j.swfu.202209059
[Abstract](158) [FullText HTML] (103) [PDF 1184KB](2)
Exploring the effects of different forms of nitrogen application on nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and mycorrhizal formation in the intercropping system of Triticum aestivum and Vicia faba. Through the pot experiment, nitrate nitrogen(Ca(NO3)2) and ammonium nitrogen((NH4)2SO4) were used to determine the shoots and roots plant biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, mycorrhizal infection rate and rhizosphere soil mycelium density. The findings indicated that application of nitrate nitrogen promoted the shoots and roots biomass of intercropped T. aestivum, but the opposite of V. faba. Nitrate nitrogen treatment increased the nitrogen and phosphorus absorption of intercropping T. aestivum shoots and roots by 73.17%, 76.27% and 123.79%, 65.51%; the nitrogen and phosphorus uptake of shoots and roots parts of intercropping T. aestivum and V. faba under ammonium nitrogen showed opposite trends. Nitrate nitrogen treaments reduced the mycorrhizal infection rates of intercropping T. aestivum and V. faba by 22.71% and 60.72%; under ammonium nitrogen, the mycorrhizal infection rate and soil mycelial density of intercropping T. aestivum increased by 40.05% and 45.24%, and the mycorrhizal infection rate of V. faba increased by 17.63%. During the jointing of T. aestivum and the flowering period of V. faba, nitrate nitrogen application promoted the biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake of intercropping wheat, and reduce the mycorrhizal infection rate of intercropping T. aestivum and V. faba.


Journal of Southwest Forestry University(Natural Science)

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